[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Water quality in rivers 'good for wildlife'


LONDON - Cleaner rivers in England and Wales have helped many species of wildlife, the Environment Agency says.

The last decade has been the best for rivers since the industrial revolution, it said.

Record numbers of salmon and sea trout were found in the Mersey, Tyne and Thames, while otters returned to every region in England and Wales.

The decade also saw the return of the water vole after a dramatic decline in the 1990s.

Incidents of serious water pollution have more than halved since 2001.

The River Thames won the International Theiss River Prize for outstanding achievement in river management and restoration earlier this year.

Ian Barker, head of water at the Environment Agency, said: "The last decade shows how far we've come in reducing pollution and improving water quality and river habitats.

"Rivers in England and Wales are at their healthiest for over a century, with otters, salmon and other wildlife returning to many rivers in record numbers in locations across the country."

He added: "But there are still big challenges. Pollution from fields and roads needs to be tackled and the Environment Agency has plans in place to re-vitalise 9,500 miles of waterways between now and 2015."



[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Mote study points to reason behind mystery of dolphin beachings


(Tampa Bay Online)

Mote study unlocking riddle of why some dolphins beach themselves

News Channel 8
Published: January 1, 2011

SARASOTA - Dolphins are beautiful creatures, but mysterious, and perhaps no mystery is greater than why each year a small number of dolphins beach themselves, usually fatally.

Now a Mote Marine scientist thinks he has found at least part of the answer: Deaf dolphins.

Randy Wells, who helped author a study about dolphin strandings, said most dolphins that beach themselves have at least partial hearing loss.

The answer isn't as surprising as it seems, Wells said.

"These animals live in an environment where they can't see very far, just because it's water and it's oftentimes murky. "So sound is a crucial player in their lives."

So crucial, Wells says, that a dolphin with hearing problems will find it almost impossible to find food, to stay with other dolphins in their pod and to keep their sense of direction.

Wells, David Mann with the University of South Florida and 14 other researchers studied numerous cases of dolphin strandings. To test their hearing, they used the same basic hearing tests doctors use on infants.

The result?

"A disproportionate number of the dolphins that come ashore are suffering from hearing loss," Wells said.

The study's findings offer the first documentation of hearing loss in dolphins and whales. Wells said it's the first official confirmation of a problem suspected by marine mammal scientists for decades.

He said the research impacts whether future stranded dolphins and whales can ever be released after rehabilitation because permanent hearing loss probably means the marine mammal cannot return to the wild.

Wells cautioned hearing loss isn't the sole factor behind all strandings. "Injury, disease - these are all factors that enter into it, but we now have a better understanding of one thing that can bring them up on the beach."



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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Emergency ritual: "Aztecs" dance to raise oceanic vibes


- Send2Press Newswire - http://send2pressnewswire.com -

Press Release: UN Launches 2011 Ocean Healing Strategy with Aztecs on New Years Dawn
NEWS SOURCE: Native American Olympic Team Foundation
Fri, 31 Dec 2010 @ 14:41
Topics: Environment,Mexico,Native American Interests,NonProfit,Press Releases,Regional Events

PUERTO VALLARTA, Mexico, Dec. 31 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) — "This New Year's Dawn, 7-8 a.m., January 1st, Mexico's renowned Aztecas, Mayans and Huichols, on behalf of the United Nations, will dance humanity back into our ancient earth-honoring way of being in 2011, at Puerto Vallarta's Los Muertos Pier," said Olympic skier Suzy "Chapstick" Chaffee, co-chair of Native American Olympic Team Foundation (NAOTF).

NAOTF has aligned with the U.N., Bolivian Mission, and Tribal Elders to use this "most powerful sacred day and time, to augment prayers to set intentions to lovingly heal our Mother Earth, especially Her oceans that give us joy, revitalization and food," said Mazatl, the Azteca Elder host. The '70 Something' Elder who danced for Pope John-Paul II, and performs fire ceremonies on PV's Pirate Ship, warmly invites everyone to come reconnect with Mother Earth's heart, or celebrate Her with us wherever you are.

This officially launches the worldwide Elders-led ocean healing ceremonies leading up to U.N.'s International Mother Earth Day on April 22, 2011, initiated by the Bolivians. World tribes regularly perform ceremonies where the drums call in ancestral and Nature spirits to powerfully send love and appreciation to Mother Earth's oceans, but given our world eco crisis, the Bolivians saw we need to work cross-culturally.

"We hope our whole Earth Family participates in these ceremonies that reconnect us with our ancient earth-honoring roots, to inspire communities to remember to give thanks to our Mother Earth and take green steps to live in more harmony with Nature daily," said Bolivia's Ambassador Loayza.

"Time to listen to the voices of Indigenous people," said U.N. Assembly President Miguel d'Escoto Brockmann, supported by four Nobel Prize winners, Eric Chivian, Muhammad Yunus, Joseph Stiglitz, and partner of our Elders, the late Dr. Steven Schneider.

The Aztecs chose Bandaras Bay's pier near where the whales perform their amazing mating dances, since these ceremonies raise the vibration of the water, to help purify, heal and restore our dying oceans, and its nutrients we have foolishly trashed with more plastic than plankton from the West Coast of the Americas, to Asia. Fish are eating microscopic carcinogenic plastic that snow down on them looking like plankton. That means whales and humans are eating plastic fish. An island of trash the size of Texas where no fish live, just invaded an Hawaiian Island.

Another grave concern, "The gray whales have developed the `skinny syndrome,' and in November, instead of giving birth to 200 babies in Baja California's Magdelena Bay, there were only 10, shared Ann Wycott, Snow Magazine writer, who had hoped to show her son the birthings.

"Our foundation quickly organized a Baby Whale Emergency Ceremony in the bay near Santa Barbara City College where the whales migrate between the Arctic Circle and Baja. While it was led by gifted Maori Whalerider Elder Grandmother Pauline and Apache Earth healer Valerie Nunez with Ingrid Schmidt's college students, healing our oceans takes a Village," said Chaffee.

Since "toxic household products, especially detergents with synthetic fragrances, harm the immune systems of marine life," revealed a Stanford study, the Elders and Nobel Prize winners also agree that to keep whales visiting our ports, switch ASAP to all natural baking soda, 7th Generation, Dr.Bronners, Ecover.

Lynn Wedekind of Seattle, an Acutonics(.com) instructor, is bringing her ceremonial Ohm Earth Gong. Elder, Dr. Olivia Ellis, says, "It sounds like a chorus of angels, and gives oceans and participants extra powerful healing."

Malenankayotl, Mazatl's son-in-law, said, "Please ideally wear white and bring a white flower and candle." He runs their Tamaskal/sweat lodge in Ixtapa, where Chaffee and English Shamen Gail Weatherly, prayed and asked for Mazatl's guidance in creating this unifying event.

The magnificence of the Azteca, Mayan and Huichol cultures, is only surpassed by the attention that humanity is finally giving these wisdomkeepers, especially Mayan prophesies.

Participating in these unity ceremonies and purifying Mother Earth are critical to creating a smoother 2012, said Don Alejandra, Guatemala's National Mayan Council of Elders leader. At the urging of the Bolivians and U.N.'s Sustainability officer, Maria Mercedes Sanchez, NAOTF helped launch Elders-led mountain ceremonies at Vail Colorado's World Ski Cup in December. See Ute-Navajo miracles: send2pressnewswire.com/2010/12/14/s2p4006_195116.php .

The delighted Sanchez, a Nicaraguan, then asked Chaffee to "please help inspire communities to also invite Elders to lead ocean ceremonies."

"Puerto Vallarta is a befitting locale to also honor the Aztecs for helping seed all this after teaching Rollingbears, a Lakota-Azteca, in Telluride Colorado, to ski with TelSki's complimentary ticket, which inspired him to save their 1995 snowless Christmas. Witnessing three more emergency weather miracles made me realize Mother Earth really listens," said Chaffee.


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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] NOAA urges ocean users to follow whale protection rules


NOAA urges ocean users to follow whale protection rules

December 30, 2010

A whale breaches off McGregor Point. Photo by Ed Lyman, HIHWNMS, NOAA Fisheries Permit #782-1438.

KIHEI — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary reminds ocean users to stay safe and operate within the law during humpback whale season.

As many as 12,000 humpback whales winter in Hawaiian waters each year. These acrobatic, 45-ton marine mammals attract wildlife enthusiasts, but collisions between vessels and whales pose a serious injury threat both to the animals and boaters.

Ocean users also are subject to risks when whales surface, breach or slap their massive tails or flippers.

"Collisions with vessels are a major source of injury and death for endangered whales in Hawaii," said Allen Tom, Pacific Islands regional director for NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

"It's important for boaters to be extra vigilant during whale season, for their own safety and the protection of these magnificent animals."

Humpback whale season in Hawaii generally runs from November through May, although whales may be encountered in limited numbers during other months. The usual peak in humpback abundance occurs from January through March.

The sanctuary offers information to the public on safe and legal whale watching. For more information, visit http://hawaiihumpbackwhale.noaa.gov.

Endangered humpback whales are protected in Hawaii. Federal regulations prohibit approaching within 100 yards of whales when in the water and 1,000 feet when operating an aircraft.

These and other federal marine mammal and endangered species protection regulations apply to all ocean users, including vessel operators, kayakers and paddle boarders, throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

In the past two seasons, NOAA has issued notices of violations proposing civil administrative penalties against commercial whale watch operators, recreational boaters, kayakers, stand-up paddle boarders and swimmers for allegedly violating the approach rules.

It is important that all ocean users be aware of and comply with the prohibition against approaching endangered humpback whales, NOAA stated.

Humpback whales congregate in ocean waters less than 600 feet deep throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. Mariners may also encounter humpback whales at the surface over deeper waters, however.

Ocean users are urged to take caution during the humpback whale season by keeping a sharp lookout; traveling at a slow, safe speed; and always staying at the vessel's helm.


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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Save the orcas: Regulate whale watching


Save the orcas: Regulate whale watching

By Calvin Sandborn And Rose Keates, Special to the Sun December 29, 2010

The courts are finally losing patience with Ottawa's continuing subversion of the Species at Risk Act. Earlier this month, Federal Court Justice James Russell ruled that Ottawa acted illegally when it refused to protect orcas from pollution, boats and lack of salmon. The decision was remarkably critical of the federal government, citing its "highly evasive" response to those who questioned government policy.

This case is just the latest in a series of stinging court judgments. For example, last year Justice Douglas Campbell nullified the fisheries minister's order that scientists remove critical habitat maps from the recovery strategy for the endangered Nooksack dace. Campbell described that case as "a story about the creation and application of policy by the minister in clear contravention of the law ... this is a case about rule of law."

Russell's new decision will now require the government to follow the law -- and create rules to address the three main threats to the 87 southern resident orcas:

- Lack of salmon;

- Toxic contamination;

- Disturbance by boats.

To deal with the salmon issue, we must redouble salmon conservation and enhancement efforts -- and adjust fishing openings to meet orca needs.

Orcas are among the most contaminated mammals in the world, so we must clean up coastal waters. Adopting the Washington state law that requires "green" storm water management would be an inexpensive start; storm water is the leading source of urban water pollution.

Finally, Ottawa must regulate whale watching. All summer long, from morning until night, 76 commercial whale watching boats chase 87 orcas around Haro Strait. Scouts on land, air and water ensure that the thundering zodiacs track down the whales. Unfortunately, these commercial boats then act as magnets for all the other boats nearby. As a result, up to 100 boats can surround half a dozen whales. Federal documents cite a summertime average of 19 to 22 vessels near the orcas in Haro Strait.

The movement and noise from all these boats interfere with the whales' ability to hunt for food, to communicate with each other, and to rest. For example, one study found that sleep patterns of the orcas have changed -- they've stopped sleeping during the day. Another study showed that when boats approach, orcas change their dive patterns and swim faster and farther. This may increase their energy use by three per cent annually. The researcher explained the potential danger of this increased energy demand:

Once food becomes limited as it is today, even a couple of per cent over the course of a year can be a matter of life or death.

Clearly, if we want the endangered southern resident orcas to survive for another generation, we must regulate whale watching. Recently the Lifeforce Foundation retained the University of Victoria Environmental Law Clinic to develop a proposed set of whale watching regulations. After reviewing the laws and guidelines from over 30 countries, the law clinic has recommended that the following rules be applied to whale watching boats:

- Prohibit them from approaching within 500 metres of a whale;

- Limit the allowable viewing time to 30 minutes;

- Require boats to utilize quiet engines and reduce speed near whales;

- Establish "no-go" zones and weekly "days of rest," to allow whales to rest, free from boat interference;

- Prohibit the practice of radioing the location of whales to other vessels;

- Prohibit encircling of whales;

- Mandate training of operators and education of the public about the needs of whales;

- Enhance enforcement efforts by giving non-government monitors half of the fines imposed as a result of their monitoring efforts.

The fact is that the 87 southern resident orcas teeter on the brink of extinction.

We cannot afford to lose them.

Their extinction would not only mark loss of a key species and ecosystem collapse, it would also be a shattering blow to B.C. culture, identity and way of life.

To the world, and to ourselves, we are the land of the orca. They are the premier symbol of Supernatural British Columbia.

We must ensure that resident orcas do not disappear from our coast.

To save them, Ottawa must stop flouting the law. Government needs to immediately implement strong regulations for the whale watching industry.

Calvin Sandborn is legal director and Rose Keates a law student at the University of Victoria Environmental Law Clinic.

The Vancouver Sun


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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Gray whale puts on a show in Tomales Bay


Gray whale puts on a show in Tomales Bay

By Mark Prado
Marin Independent Journal

12/30/2010 05:47:33 PM PST

Kayakers recorded a 25-foot gray whale surfacing repeatedly in Tomales Bay and posted it on YouTube. (Video screengrab)
A 25-foot-long gray whale on its way to Baja from Alaska has turned up in Tomales Bay, thrilling spectators as it leisurely swims and dives to the water's bottom to dine on a smorgasbord of worms, mollusks and crustaceans.

"It is rare to see a gray whale in Tomales Bay," said John Dell'Osso, chief of interpretation for the Point Reyes National Seashore. "We are in the peak of the migration season now and this one must have veered off."

The whale has been spotted for the past three weeks. John Granatir, who operates Blue Waters Kayaking at Tomales Bay, saw the whale up close last week near Lawson's Landing.

"I was about 50 yards away and it was just laying on top of the water," he said. "It didn't seem too shy of people. It was just lazing around. It was also diving for food. It was amazing to see."

A kayaker recorded the whale and posted it on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-uOBganNV1E

Gray whales are bottom feeders and sift through mud on the ocean floor with the baleen, comb-like filters in their mouths. They collect crustaceans, plankton, mollusks, squid and fish in their baleen while spitting out the rest.

"When they dive you see a plume of mud come to the surface," Granatir said. "They don't have to go far down in Tomales Bay because it's only about 30 feet deep or so."

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Gulf of the Farallones

National Marine Sanctuary is advising people to steer clear of the whale. People should watch for the gray whale's blow, which looks like a puff of smoke about 10 to 15 feet high, and not approach within 300 feet.

It's possible that this whale may have come to Tomales Bay in search of food, which has been lacking in the open ocean.

"There is a change in food availability in the ocean," said Mary Jane Schramm, spokeswoman for the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. "More and more we are seeing whales stall during their migration looking for food. Some arrive without that extra layer of blubber and you see the shape of their skull and scapula. Some are very skinny."

Aside from the specimen in Tomales Bay, gray whales are appearing off Point Reyes, giving visitors an opportunity to see the giant mammals migrating south.

Beginning Saturday, the Point Reyes National Seashore will offer bus rides from the Ken Patrick Visitor Center at Drakes Beach to popular viewing areas such as Chimney Rock and the historic lighthouse, weather permitting.

Because Point Reyes juts 10 miles into the ocean, people can get good views of the whales.

The whales' migration takes them some 10,000 miles each year, the longest of any mammal. They spend about a third of their lives migrating, scientists say.

The Bering and Chukchi seas off Siberia and Alaska provide a feeding ground for gray whales, but as winter approaches and days grow shorter and colder, the whales begin their journey south to the warmer climate of Baja California. The whales are able to swim 20 hours at a time.

While they travel together for the journey, the whales separate at their destination. Then after up to three months basking in the warm waters off Baja, some with newborn calves, they migrate back to Alaska and can again be seen at Point Reyes in March.

"They typically are seen now from mid-December through mid-January," Dell'Osso said. "When the water is choppy they are hard to see, but when the weather is good it's quite a sight."



Re: [forensic-science] Daubert and Frye Hearings for Footwear Impression Evidence


For general information on Daubert related materials on impression evidence you might want to look at the SWGGUN sight on admissibility issues:

Jim Roberts

----- Original Message -----
From: Barry Fisher
To: forensic-science@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Wednesday, December 29, 2010 8:25 AM
Subject: Re: [forensic-science] Daubert and Frye Hearings for Footwear Impression Evidence

Most of the Daubert related challenges have been on fingerprints, firearms, handwriting, and bite marks. Naturally, the arguments used in those areas would fit into footwear evidence as well.

The defense bar seems to be hitting hard on the notion of uniqueness, that is, testifying that one bit of evidence came from a one individual or item to the exclusion of all others. If I come across something I'll pass it along.

All the best,

Barry Fisher
Los Angeles

Sent from my iPad

On Dec 29, 2010, at 3:38 AM, Nadav Levin <simanim@police.gov.il> wrote:

> Dear Colleagues,
> We are looking for references and information regarding Daubert and Frye
> Hearings on Footwear Impression Evidence.
> Any input will be appreciated.
> Thanks, and a Happy New Year
> Nadav Levin
> Toolmarks and Materials Lab
> Div. of Identification and Forensic Science (DIFS)
> Israeli Police HQ
> Jerusalem 91906
> Israel
> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Do Navy dolphins patrol Puget Sound waters?


Candace Calloway Whiting
Swimmer Interdiction Security Dolphins: Are They Here?

Dolphins in the military (Creative Commons Photo)
Orca Network reports that a bottlenose dolphin, (which normally prefer warmer water and rarely venture into the cold water of Puget Sound) has been seen several times in the vicinity of the Port of Tacoma. According to Cascadia Research, there have only been two documented occurrences of bottlenose dolphins here previous to this one, in 1988 and one recently, in June of this year, both of which were identified following their death.

The most logical explanation for these unusual appearances is that the dolphins somehow became disoriented and strayed from their normal environment, and as unfortunate as that may be it is not that unusual for dolphins and whales to become ill or injured and lose their bearings. The characteristics of the ocean this year brought warmer water offshore, so it is possible that a small pod of dolphins followed fish northward. Given that a deceased bottlenose dolphin was also found in June, it could well be that several came north together and the one we are seeing now is the lone survivor. Often in nature these experiments - where animals wander outside of their normal range - are indicative of changing climatic conditions, or general loss of resources in their usual habitat. Although sometimes these emigrations are successful, leading to the establishment of new populations, often the animals find themselves in very marginal conditions and don't thrive.

That said, it is also possible that the more recent sightings are linked to the navy's planned marine mammal underwater surveillance, the Swimmer Interdiction Security System (SISS) at the Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor. After a three year process of obtaining permits and doing an environmental impact study, the navy announced in early 2010 that the program to use dolphins and sea lions to patrol the waters of Puget Sound would be implemented within the calendar year:

The dolphins and sea lions are the stars of a new swimmer interdiction security system, but like nuclear warheads, the Navy will neither confirm nor deny their presence.

"Because it's a security system, we are not going to discuss when or if the animals are there," said Tom LaPuzza, spokesman for the Navy Marine Mammal Program in San Diego. He added, however, that, "You can go by there in your boat and see them and know they are there."

They're evidently not there now because their homes haven't been built, LaPuzza said. Construction can't begin until the fish window closes in July.

LaPuzza doesn't know yet how many animals will be heading north. There will be a total of no more than 20, according to the Final Environmental Impact Statement prepared for the program.

Four floating enclosures, 30 feet long by 30 feet wide, will each house up to four dolphins. Their water temperature will be kept at a minimum of 52 degrees.

(Komo News, May 2010)

In the photo of the dolphin that is now in Puget Sound, you can see that although it's skin looks bumpy the animal appears to be in good weight. You might assume that the navy would not work a dolphin that was sick, but it is not possible to tell from the photo if the dolphin has a skin ailment, or whether it is the normal response these warmer water species have to cold water.

This bottlenose dolphin was photographed in southern Puget Sound in mid-December. (Photo by Josh Oliver, courtesy Cascadia Research)

"Skin lesions are indicators of cold stress in marine animals because they can occur as a direct result of prolonged exposure to cold, although other indicators (such as increased respiration rate) are likely to be observed before onset of skin discoloration occurs. Thus, skin discoloration would be considered as a secondary indicator of cold water stress, and more than one secondary indicator would be needed to ensure that skin discoloration is representative of cold water stress for any specific individual."

In terms of working an animal that shows signs of cold intolerance, the navy has a set protocol that determines when the dolphins must be pulled from the cold environment, and since the skin bumps are considered a secondary reaction, the animals are allowed to work with this condition:

"Although trainers and handlers monitor marine mammals constantly during open-water work, special care would be taken for cold-stress indicators when animals are working in water temperatures approaching the LCT of the animal. The animals would be continuously monitored for increased respiration rate, behavior change, and shivering. Other secondary indicators (skin discoloration, weight loss) would not be evident during individual sessions because these conditions occur over a longer period of time, and thus would be considered as part of the longer term monitoring program. When during a session the thresholds for the secondary indicators of increased respiration rate, shivering, and behavior changes are exceeded, the core body temperature of the animal would be measured. Measurements would be repeated at 30-minute increments until the end of the session. The method of core body temperature measurement would be one of several approved for use in MMP animals by the veterinary staff (e.g., rectal temperature probe, stomach temperature pill, implantable temperature sensor, etc.)."

So it is possible that this is one of the dolphin sentries, either in training or possibly having temporarily strayed from the handler's control.

Although the navy says that the actual work will be carried out at night, significant training needs to be accomplished before the animals will reliably perform their duties and return to the boat when recalled, and this is more easily done during the day. The animals need to get used to their enclosures, and possibly new trainers and handlers. They need to become familiar with the basic environment in the areas of Puget Sound where they will be expected to work, and will need to adjust to the lower water temperature (it can be a full 10 degrees colder here than the water in San Diego, where their initial training takes place).

Under the best of circumstances, dolphins can refuse to work and ignore the handler's commands to return to the boat - and if the animals don't know where 'home' is, they might wander around for hours or days before being located:

"Trained marine mammals may also fail to obey simple commands from their trainers when exposed to colder temperatures, particularly with respect to behaviors that require exposing skin to air temperatures below freezing (Scronce and Bowers 1985). Deviations from normal behavior, such as altered swimming behavior and refusal to beach, might be good indicators of cold stress because they can indicate that the animal is trying to minimize exposure to cold temperatures."

"When an MMP marine mammal becomes separated from its workboat, trainers recall the animal with an acoustic recall pinger. The pinger is a low-power, sound generator that is lowered by hand into the water from the side of a boat. The pinger is omni-directional, and the sound is transmitted into the water. This pinger is a commercial device that has been used for many years by the MMP. The marine mammals are trained to respond to
the sound from the pinger as an emergency recall.

Each animal is also outfitted with radio and satellite transmitters that can be used to locate an animal when it is out of range of the acoustic pinger recall. Program personnel are well trained in the use of these tracking devices and can quickly ascertain a marine mammal's location. When the MMP marine mammal is located, the trainers travel to the animal and then use pingers and positive reinforcement behaviors to retrieve the marine mammal... If neither a pinger nor a transmitter can locate the marine mammal, the first location physically searched is the MMP home enclosure. This is the most likely location where animals are found. If the animal is not found at the MMP enclosures, satellite telemetry system tracking for the animal commences."

Whether this dolphin is wild or trained, lost or working, it does serve as a reminder that these animals will soon be swimming in the Puget Sound, patrolling to help keep intruders from attacking our shores. Whether we like it or not, the navy considers these sentries to be vital to our safety. They strive to take good care of the dolphins, if for no other reason than that these animals represent a huge financial investment and significant commitment of resources.

The quoted information on the SISS program was obtained from a navy document, the appendix of which alone is 110 pages:


If you are curious about the ocean temperatures, this is a good source:
Water temperature