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Date: Thu 6 Sep 2012
Source: Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention [edited] <http://www.maine.gov/tools/whatsnew/attach.php?id=432097&an=2>

Since 1 Jul 2012, 10 infections with bacteria of the _Vibrio_ genus (also called vibriosis) have been reported to Maine CDC; 4 in Maine residents and 6 in out of state residents. In 2011, only 4 cases were reported, all in Maine residents. The majority of vibriosis infections reported in Maine occur in the summer months. 7 of the 10 vibriosis infections reported in Maine in 2012 were laboratory-confirmed _Vibrio parahaemolyticus_, one was _Vibrio fluvialis_, one was _Grimontia hollisae_ (formerly _Vibrio hollisae_), and one is pending speciation.
The median age of ill individuals is 70 years. All patients reported consuming some type of seafood during their exposure period. All cases are considered sporadic and not linked at this time. Multiple state agencies are involved in the investigation.

Individuals with immune-compromising conditions, liver disease, decreased gastric acidity, peptic ulcers, and diabetes are more likely to become ill with vibriosis. Symptoms of vibriosis include watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache.
High fever, bloody stools, and high white blood cell count may occur in _Vibrio parahaemolyticus_ infections. Persons become symptomatic approximately 4-96 hours after exposure. Common exposures include consumption of raw oysters, clams or other seafood, and exposure of open cuts or wounds to salt water.

Many laboratories in the state do not routinely test for _Vibrio_ species on stool cultures. Testing can be performed on stool, blood, or wound cultures. All isolates of _Vibrio_ species from clinical specimens must be sent to the state Health and Environmental Testing Laboratory (HETL) for confirmation.

Clinicians are encouraged to order testing for _Vibrio_ species for patients with compatible illness and history of the following during the 4-96 hours prior to the onset of illness:
- consumption of seafood,
- exposure of open cuts or wounds to salt water.

- thoroughly cook all meat, fish, and shellfish;
- avoid exposing open wounds to warm seawater;
- avoid consuming raw seafood, especially if you have an immune-compromising condition;
- use separate cutting boards for raw meats, fish, shellfish, and other food products
- refrigerate meats, fish, shellfish, and produce at appropriate temperatures (40 deg F [4 deg C] for refrigerators and 0 deg F [-18 deg C] for freezers);
- keep foods that will be eaten raw, such as fruits and vegetables, away from food products from animals.

Communicated by:

[The trend of increasing number of _Vibrio_ infections acquired from seafood obtained from the usually cooler ocean waters of the northern USA and Canada is a reflection of the phenomenon of global warming.
Since 6 of the 10 infections occurred in non-Mainers visiting the state, it is important to note travel to the state as a pertinent piece of history for suspecting vibriosis. - Mod.LL

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:

[see also:
Vibrio parahaemolyticus - USA (03): (CA) raw oyster, recall
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - Canada: (BC) 20120727.1217661 Vibrio parahaemolyticus - USA (02): NY shellfish source
Vibrio parahaemolyticus - USA: (MO) 20120701.1186448 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA: (MA), 2011 20120512.1131191
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (04): (WA) expanded alert
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (03): (WA) alert 20110915.2820 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (02): (CA) 20110913.2786 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA: (WA) 20110807.2394 2010
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA: (WA) 20100803.2604
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, seafood - Chile 20081223.4041 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA: (MD ex NJ) 20080821.2608
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (WA): int'l alert
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - Chile: 2005 20070321.0991 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - Chile (San Antonio)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (multistate) (03)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (multistate) 20060807.2211 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (WA, NY) (05) 20060805.2175 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (WA, NY) 20060721.1999 Vibrio parahaemolyticus - North America: background 20060717.1963 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - North America: USA (OR, WA), Canada
(BC) 20060716.1956
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, seafood - Chile (Puerto Montt) (03)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, seafood - Chile (Puerto Montt) 20050118.0163
Food poisoning, birthday guests - USA (FL) (02): vibrio parahaemolyticus 20040927.2664 Food poisoning, birthday guests - USA (FL) 20040922.2619 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (AK) (02) 20040822.2335 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (AK) 20040803.2113
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (NY): alert 20020822.5111 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, O3:K6 - USA, Asia 20020716.4770 2000
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (Texas) 20000928.1676
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (multistate) 19990725.1252] .................................................ll/mj/mpp
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